Exploring the Impact of Chatbot Integration on Cybersecurity Awareness and Behaviour : A Multifactorial Analysis

  • Wael Sh. Basri College of Business Administration, Northern Border University, ArAr. Saudi Arabia.
  • Hilal H. Ali College of Business Administration, Marketing, Northern Border University, ArAr. Saudi Arabia


Chatbots, Cybersecurity, User Trust, User Expertise, Artificial Intelligence (AI), Cybersecurity Culture..


The study investigates the substantial mediating role and moderating impact of user proficiency levels on the relationship between pivotal factors and the acknowledgment and behavioural patterns concerning computer security within the framework of organizational environments. Two sets of questionnaires were administered: one targeted customers who had conducted online transactions (n=250), while the other was distributed to staff members of agencies involved in online commerce (n=200). These surveys probed the association with chatbots, expended effort, organizational cybersecurity culture, readiness for cyberattacks, users' evaluations of chatbots and their expertise levels, as well as users' cyber behaviour and cyber awareness. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) with Partial Least Squares (PLS) was employed for data analysis. The results indicate that user confidence in chatbots significantly influences the relationship between chatbot availability, user proficiency in chatbot interaction, formulation of cyber threat models, organizational cybersecurity culture, and cybersecurity awareness and behaviours. Notably, robust moderation effects were observed concerning the expertise level of users in the cybersecurity associations related to threat model assessment, organizational cybersecurity culture, and cybersecurity behaviour and awareness. These findings underscore the paramount importance of fostering user trust in chatbots to advance cybersecurity awareness and behaviours facilitated by chatbot usage. Moreover, tailoring cybersecurity initiatives to accommodate varying user expertise levels and designing diverse options for user engagement may represent pivotal strategies for enhancing organizational cybersecurity in the long term. The primary focus of this researcher pertains to the examination of literature concerning the mediating function of trust in chatbots and the moderating influence of user expertise level on cybersecurity within organizational contexts. This research contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of the dynamics among the implicated factors and offers practical insights aimed at enhancing cybersecurity measures.

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