Negative Impacts of Free Migration in the Mountainous Provinces of Northern Vietnam

  • Trương Bảo Thanh Academy of Politics Region I, Ha Noi, Viet Nam.
  • Nguyễn Anh Cường VNU University of Social Sciences and Humanities, Hanoi.
  • Đậu Tuấn Nam Ho Chi Minh National Academy of Politics, Hanoi, Vietnam.
  • Nguyễn Chu Du Faculty of Sociology, Trade Union University, Hanoi, Vietnam.
  • Vũ Hải Vân People's Security Academy, Ha Noi, Viet Nam.


Free Migration, Ethnic Minority, Northern Mountains of Vietnam, National Policy, Border Area..


Free migration plays a significant role in socio-economic development, leading to population changes and labour redistribution across different territories. The redistribution of labour, particularly in relation to natural resources and the environment, is crucial for social development. However, free migration can also impede national defence and security efforts. In the northern mountainous provinces of Vietnam, the free migration of ethnic minorities has adversely affected socio-economic development and national defence security. For many years, this phenomenon has posed significant challenges. This article aims to propose solutions to mitigate the negative impacts of free migration and address both theoretical and practical issues. By employing qualitative and quantitative Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) analysis, the study investigates the detrimental effects of ethnic minority free migration on immigration, emigration, and the migrants themselves in the northern mountainous provinces. Conducted in three provinces using a multi-stage sampling technique, the research involved 300 survey participants, including 150 management personnel and 150 citizens. The findings of this study lead to policy recommendations for local governments, aiming to minimize the negative impacts of free migration and promote sustainable development. By elucidating the drawbacks of free migration in Vietnam, this article contributes to the global discourse on free migration and offers valuable insights into potential solutions.